Alexander's prayer caused the mountains to move nearer, making the pass narrower, facilitating his building his gate. [6] Viking travellers and colonists were seen at many points in history as violent raiders. [24] One explanation is that the Gog alliance, a blend of the "Table of Nations" in Genesis 10 and Tyre's trading partners in Ezekiel 27, with Persia added, was cast in the role of end-time enemies of Israel by means of Isaiah 66:19, which is another text of eschatological foretelling. Where Is The Wall Of Yajuj Wa Majuj ? [40] The rabbis associated no specific nation or territory with them beyond a location to the north of Israel,[41] but the great Jewish scholar Rashi identified the Christians as their allies and said God would thwart their plan to kill all Israel. It is surpassed only by the walls systems of Great Wall of China as the longest single-segment building and the longest defensive wall in existence. In one version, "Goth and Magothy" are kings of the Unclean Nations, driven beyond a mountain pass by Alexander, and blocked from returning by his new wall. Romanized Jewish historian Josephus knew them as the nation descended from Magog the Japhetite, as in Genesis, and explained them to be the Scythians. [15], The Biblical "Gog and Magog" possibly gave derivation of the name Gogmagog, a legendary British giant. This legend must have been current in contemporary Jewish circles by this period, coinciding with the beginning of the Christian Era. For a while, they thought Alexander the Great was Dhul-Qarnayn because he had built the Caspian Gates (Wall of Gorgan I believe it's called) to keep the Scythians out. [53], According to Shia sources, Yajooj and Majooj are not from the Children of Adam (the human race). Alexander (Iskandar) building the brazen wall against the people of Gog and Magog. Some accounts and maps began to place the "Caspian Mountains", and Gog and Magog, just outside the Great Wall of China. The material is not found in the oldest Greek, Latin, Armenian, and Syriac versions. [110][111] Arab traveler ibn Fadlan also reported of this belief, writing around 921 he recorded that "Some hold the opinion that Gog and Magog are the Khazars". R. N. Frye, “The Sasanian System of Walls for Defense,” Studies in Memory of Gaston Wiet, Jerusalem, 1977. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaDhul-Qarnayn with the help of some jinn, building the Iron Wall to keep the barbarian Gog and Magog from civilized peoples. "Cnut: England's Viking King 1016–35". Cyrus the Great in the Quran is a theory that identifies Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in verses 18:83-98 of the Quran, with Cyrus the Great. All Reubenites are held to be descendants of Reuben in the view of the Torah, but it is unclear what family relationship Gog's father Joel has with the sons of Reuben in verse 3. ( He is most commonly identified with Alexander the Great). The name Magog is equally obscure, but may come from the Assyrian mat-Gugu, "Land of Gyges", i.e., Lydia. The legend of Gog and Magog and the gates were also interpolated into the Alexander romances. Gog and Magog are apocalyptic figures in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scripture. [38][39], The aggadah, homiletic and non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, treat Gog and Magog as two names for the same nation who will come against Israel in the final war. The 14ft-high wicker figures of the giants Gog and Magog are being spruced up for the Lord Mayor’s procession, which they will lead in a few weeks’ time. Coordinates. I would like to hear your views on this. This wall is known as ‘The Great Wall of Gorgan’ or ‘the Red Snake’. [d][16] A later corrupted folk rendition in print altered the tradition around Gogmagog and Corineus with two giants Gog and Magog, with whom the Guildhall statues came to be identified. Muslims regard the Koran as the uncreated word of God. [4] They appear in the Quran in chapter Al-Kahf as Yajuj and Majuj (Arabic: يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ; Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj), primitive and immoral tribes that were separated and barriered off by Dhul-Qarnayn (possessor of the Two Horns), who is mentioned in the Quran as a great righteous ruler and conqueror. Yajuj and Majuj are the Arabic names for Gog and Magog. Then one day, as they stop scratching for the night, one will say tomorrow we will finish God Willing, and in the morning, it is not restored as with everything night. Say: Thus said the Lord: Behold, I am against you, Gog, the prince, leader of Meshech and Tubal ... Persia, Cush and Put will be with you ... also Gomer with all its troops, and Beth Togarmah from the far north with all its troops—the many nations with you. Block, but their remoteness and reputation for violence and mystery possibly "made Gog and his confederates perfect symbols of the archetypal enemy, rising against God and his people". A legend was attached to Gog and Magog by the time of the Roman period, that the Gates of Alexander were erected by Alexander the Great to repel the tribe. In the hands of Early Christian writers they became apocalyptic hordes, and throughout the … I wonder how outsiders would judge our beliefs if they went by the emblems and traditions we perpetuate. Most people identified the Scythians as Magog. They will be so numerous, commentators on the Koran wrote, that they will drink up all the waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates. So Noah had a son named Japheth who had a son named Magog who settled Turkey. Gog, Magog, Chimeras and the Second Incursion 289 When I discovered that, all of a sudden, I realized there was a possibility this incredibly long and massive wall may have been built to keep out giants! [54] This is in contradiction with many reports in Sunni sources, including those in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, which indicate they will indeed, be from the Children of Adam, and this is the belief of the overwhelming majority of Islamic scholars. [46] They scratch at their wall each day until they almost break through. [33] The Samaritan Torah and the Septuagint (a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible made during the last few centuries of the pre-Christian era) occasionally introduce the name of Gog where the Hebrew original has something else, or use Magog where the Hebrew has Gog, indicating that the names were interchangeable. A legend was attached to Gog and Magog by the time of the Roman period, that the Gates of Alexander were erected by Alexander the Great to repel the tribe. [51] It is not entirely clear what Sallam saw, but he may have reached the Jade Gate and the westernmost customs point on the border of China. [34], Chapters 19:11–21:8 of the Book of Revelation, dating from the end of the 1st century AD,[35] tells how Satan is to be imprisoned for a thousand years, and how, on his release, he will rally "the nations in the four corners of the Earth, Gog and Magog", to a final battle with Christ and his saints:[3], When the thousand years are over, Satan will be released from his prison and will go out to deceive the nations in the four corners of the Earth—Gog and Magog—and to gather them for battle. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. (Credit: Wikimedia Commons) But the Gorgan Wall has made its mark on legend too, inscribed in the popular imagination as deeply as it leaves its marks on the Golestan landscape. Alizadeh, Karim (23 January 2014). In my research, I found that Gog and Magog were historically [18] After this message of reassurance, chapters 38–39, the Gog oracle, tell how Gog of Magog and his hordes will threaten the restored Israel but will be destroyed, after which God will establish a new Temple and dwell with his people for a period of lasting peace (chapters 40–48). An international team of archaeologists has been at work on the snakelike monument and here they report on their findings. [109], As one nomadic people followed another on the Eurasian steppes, so the identification of Gog and Magog shifted. That need not present difficulties for the tales found in Sura 18 of the book, even though they bear similarities to folklore from other sources. The History Press Ltd, 2005. The name means Two Horned, but it does not refer to Moses (who is often depicted with horns of power). Their trial will cause much harm to the people of the earth. [m][93] In the latest and longest Greek version[n] are described the Unclean Nations, which include the Goth and Magoth as their kings, and whose people engage in the habit of eating worms, dogs, human cadavers and fetuses. Referred to in the Qur'an in Surah Al-Kahf, Zul-Qarnain was a pious and just king. Twentieth-century scholars have used the term to denote the eschaton in a malleable sense, not necessarily meaning final days, or tied to the Apocalypse. One of the signs of the Hour to occur near the end of time is the emergence of two powerful nations known as Gog and Magog (Ya’juj wa Ma’juj). One of the most challenging prophecies in the Bible is the war of Gog and Magog as detailed in Ezekiel 38 and 39. [134] But as the century progressed, apocalyptic expectations receded as the populace in Europe began to adopt an increasingly secular worldview. The Tartar Relation, an obscure account of Friar Carpini's 1240s journey to Mongolia, is unique in alleging that these Caspian Mountains in Mongolia, "where the Jews called Gog and Magog by their fellow countrymen are said to have been shut in by Alexander", were moreover purported by the Tartars to be magnetic, causing all iron equipment and weapons to fly off toward the mountains on approach. This striking detail reminds me of a story by the 19th-century myth-making author George Macdonald, who in The Princess and the Goblin has subterranean goblins digging away each night to break through into the king’s house. 24–25, Bruno Dumézil, master of Conference at Paris X–Nanterre, Normalien, aggregated history, author of conversion and freedom in the barbarian kingdoms. [31], The Book of Jubilees, from about the same time, makes three references to either Gog or Magog: in the first, Magog is a descendant of Noah, as in Genesis 10; in the second, Gog is a region next to Japheth's borders; and in the third, a portion of Japheth's land is assigned to Magog. The conflation of Gog and Magog with the legend of Alexander and the Iron Gates was disseminated throughout the Near East in the early centuries of the Christian and Islamic era. Magog is the “ chief prince ” (or most prominent) of his brothers, Meshech and Tubal. This idea is also in the Quran (609–632 CE[89][90]), and found its way in the Western Alexander Romance. [6] In modern times they remain associated with apocalyptic thinking, especially in Israel and the Muslim world. He … [116][125][126] As noted, Riccoldo had reported a Mongol folk-tradition that they were descended from Gog and Magog. Many sermons, articles and videos have attempted to explain this end times battle in which a group of nations will attack the nation of Israel – only to have God Himself supernaturally intervene to defeat them. The 14ft-high wicker figures of the giants Gog and Magog are being spruced up for the Lord Mayor’s procession, which they will lead in a few weeks’ time. [25], Although the prophecy refers to Gog as an enemy in some future, it is not clear if the confrontation is meant to occur in a final "end of days" since the Hebrew term aḥarit ha-yamim (Hebrew: אחרית הימים‎) may merely mean "latter days", and is open to interpretation. As noted earlier, scholars postulate the Great Wall of China, begun in the 5th century BC, may have been built to keep these Hunnic hordes at bay. Note the change in loyalties. “Yes,” he replied, “if evil be widespread.”. In number they are like the sand on the seashore. [1] Efforts have been made to identify him with various individuals, notably Gyges, a king of Lydia in the early 7th century BC, but many scholars do not believe he is related to any historical person. Great Wall of Gorgan It is 195 km long and 6–10 m wide, and features over 30 fortresses spaced at intervals of between 10 and 50 km. [105] Gog and Magog caricaturised as figures with hooked noses on a miniature depicting their attack of the Holy City, found in a manuscript of the Apocalypse in Anglo-Norman. A lot of Muslims, Christians and Pagan mythologist mention Yajuj Majuj. In the 9th and 10th centuries these kingdoms were identified by some with the lands of the Khazars, a Turkic people who had converted to Judaism and whose empire dominated Central Asia–the 9th-century monk Christian of Stavelot referred to Gazari, said of the Khazars that they were "living in the lands of Gog and Magog" and noted that they were "circumcised and observing all [the laws of] Judaism". At one point, it was the Turks, who threatened Baghdad and northern Iran;[48] later, when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad in 1258, it was they who were Gog and Magog. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 08:29. [140] US President George W. Bush, in the prelude to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Bush told French President Jacques Chirac, "Gog and Magog are at work in the Middle East." Josephus recounts the tradition that Gog and Magog were locked up by Alexander the Great behind iron gates in the "Caspian Mountains", generally identified with the Caucasus Mountains. Over the next few centuries Jewish tradition changed Ezekiel's Gog from Magog into Gog and Magog. The ‘Red Snake’ in northern Iran, which owes its … [55], Various modern scholars of history and geography regarded the Vikings and their descendants as Gog and Magog, since the unknown group from Scandinavia had made their sudden and considerable entry into the history of Europe. … [1] The meaning of the name Gog remains uncertain, and in any case, the author of the Ezekiel prophecy seems to attach no particular importance to it. [79], The Pseudo-Methodius, written originally in Syriac, is considered the source of Gog and Magog tale incorporated into Western versions of the Alexander Romance. [1], In Genesis 10 Magog is a person, son of Japheth son of Noah, but no Gog is mentioned. The most peculiar part of the Alexander Romance is the accounts of the construction of The Gates of Alexander. According to the Greek version, Gog and Magog served the Belsyrians, whom Alexander fought them, "Tus" in Iran, near the Caspian south shore, known as, The idea that Gog and Magog were connected with the Goths was longstanding; in the mid-16th century, Archbishop of Uppsala, Riccoldo observed that the Mongol script resembled Chaldean (. The names are mentioned together in Ezekiel chapter 38, where Gog is an individual and Magog is his land. [115], In fact, Gog and Magog were held by the Mongol to be their ancestors, at least by some segment of the population. [18] Even some Russians took up the idea, apparently unconcerned by the implications ("Ancestors were found in the Bible, and that was enough"), as did Ronald Reagan. [83][i], In the Syriac Alexander Legend dating to 629–630, Gog (Syriac: ܓܘܓ‎, gwg) and Magog (Syriac: ܡܓܘܓ‎ܵ, mgwg) appear as kings of Hunnish nations. [49] The wall dividing them from civilised peoples was normally placed towards today's Armenia and Azerbaijan, but in the year 842 the Caliph Al-Wathiq had a dream in which he saw that it had been breached, and sent an official named Sallam to investigate may be related Ergenekon. [139] For the most fervent, the countdown to Armageddon began with the return of the Jews to Israel, followed quickly by further signs pointing to the nearness of the final battle—nuclear weapons, European integration, Israel's reunification of Jerusalem in the Six Day War in 1967, and America's wars in Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf. [47], Various nations and peoples in history were identified as Ya'juj and Ma'juj. This will keep out Yajuj and Majuj until the last days, when they are let loose. 36:24) of the world where they had been dispersed and bring them back to the land pro… What's north of Jerusalem, Israel? Composed between the 4th and 2nd centuries BC. Al-Kafi, one of their primary collections of ahadith, states that it has been narrated from Ibn Abbas that when he asked Ali about the "creatures", he responded by saying God has created "1,200 species on the land, 1,200 species in the sea, 70 species from the Children of Adam and the people are the Children of Adam except for the Yajooj and Majooj". It was restored somewhat during the Sassanid era (3rd-7th centuries). The oldest manuscript is recension α. Based on Rubruck stating elsewhere "There are other enclosures in which there are Jews", Simek, Rudolf (2005) "the emergence of the viking age: circumstances and conditions", "The vikings first Europeans VIII – XI century – the new discoveries of archaeology", other, pp. As traveler and Friar Riccoldo da Monte di Croce put it in c. 1291, "They say themselves that they are descended from Gog and Magog: and on this account they are called Mogoli, as if from a corruption of Magogoli". [v][118][128], The Flemish Franciscan friar William of Rubruck, who was first-hand witness to Alexander's supposed wall in Derbent on the shores of the Caspian Sea in 1254,[w] identified the people the walls were meant to fend off only vaguely as "wild tribes" or "desert nomads",[x][131] but one researcher made the inference Rubruck must have meant Jews,[y] and that he was speaking in the context of "Gog and Magog". [91], This Gog and Magog legend is not found in earlier versions of the Alexander romance of Pseudo-Callisthenes, whose oldest manuscript dates to the 3rd century,[l] but an interpolation into recensions around the 8th century. Many historical documents suggest that their conquests of other territories was retaliation in response to the encroachment upon tribal lands by Christian missionaries, and perhaps by the Saxon Wars prosecuted by Charlemagne and his kin to the south. Dubya explicitly refers to Gog and Magog, evil empires from the Old Testament. Like Gog and Magog, and Alexander the Great, a great wall in China was well-known about 2200 years ago. [135] This has not been the case in the United States, where a 2002 poll indicated that 59% of Americans believed the events predicted in the Book of Revelation would come to pass. [50] Sallam returned a little over two years later and reported that he had seen the wall and also the tower where Dhul Qarnayn had left his building equipment, and all was still intact. Ireland v Scotland Autumn Nations Cup final round: What time is kick-off, what TV channel is it on and what is our prediction. The Prophecies A long 2,600 years ago the great Hebrew nabi Ezekiel unveiled the prophecy the Lord God had divulged to him concerning the future of the nation of Israel. “Shall we all perish?” she asked. 59: Concerning the Province of Tenduc, and the Descendants of Prester John", ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments, Existential risk from artificial intelligence, Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal, Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal, List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events, List of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gog_and_Magog&oldid=990750311, Articles about multiple people in the Quran, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). Eusebius) frequently identified Gog and Magog with the Romans and their emperor. They break for the night saying tomorrow we will finish, and each night God restores it. [104], The Gog and Magog are not only human flesh-eaters, but illustrated as men "a notably beaked nose" in examples such as the "Henry of Mainz map", an important example of mappa mundi. [q] Routed by Alexander, they escaped through a defile in the mountains of Tus (or Turs),[r] and were sealed by the wall erected there, to last until the advent of the Antichrist. When they do break through they will be so numerous that "their vanguard is in Syria and their rear in Khorasan". Romanized Jewish historian Josephus knew them as the nation descended from Magog the Japhetite, as in Genesis, and explained them to be the Scythians. The Mongol invasions may have seemed like the fulfillment of … "[20], Internal evidence indicates that the Gog oracle was composed substantially later than the chapters around it. Gog and Magog are said to engage in human cannibalism in the romances and derived literature. Ezekiel’s prophecy doesn’t give us a precise timing for Gog’s attack other than he will be summoned “in the latter years.” But John’s revelation is very specific. “Son of man,” says the prophet Ezekiel, “direct your face against Gog, of the land of Magog.”. Gog and Magog, he says, live near to the sea that encircles the Earth and can be counted only by God; they are only half the height of a normal man, with claws instead of nails and a hairy tail and huge hairy ears which they use as mattress and cover for sleeping. Tooman's view is that the "latter days" means "the end of history-as-we-know-it and the initiation of a new historical age". You may ask, “How did you come to that conclusion?” Keep reading. [103] This is a case of imperfect transmission, since the prose Alexander's source, the Latin work by Archpriest Leo of Naples known as Historia de Preliis, does mention "Gogh et Macgogh", at least in some manuscripts. [113], Europeans in Medieval China reported findings from their travels to the Mongol Empire. [99], Gog and Magog also appear in Thomas de Kent's Roman de toute chevalerie (c. 1180), where they are portrayed as cave-dwellers who consume human flesh. Believed to have been built during the Parthian Empire (247 BCE–224 CE) and restored during the Sassanid era (3rd to 7th century AD), the Great Wall Of Gorgon is a incredible and sophisticated defensive construction located in north-eastern Iran, it has around 30 military forts, an aqueduct, and water channels that go along the route. Through his wisdom and knowledge, he decided to build a wall that protects this town from gog and magog using a mix of iron and copper. The two giants in London's Lord Mayor's Show surprisingly figure in the Koran too. The first of them would pass the lake of Tiberias and drink out of it. [17], The Book of Ezekiel records a series of visions received by the prophet Ezekiel, a priest of Solomon's Temple, who was among the captive during the Babylonian exile. There’s more of a moral there than in any legend of Gog and Magog familiar to the spectators at the Lord Mayor’s Show. [22] The confederation thus represents a multinational alliance surrounding Israel. Therefore, this wall is located north with the border of Iran and Turkmenistan. Worth Press Ltd, 2000, (Shahadat-ul-Qur’an, Ruhani Khazain, Volume 6, Pages 361-362, "Version anglo-normande en vers de l'Apocalypse", "The Commentary of Rashi on Isaiah and the Jewish-Christian Debate", "Iskandar Oversees the Building of the Wall", "Story of Ya'juj and Ma'juj (Gog and Magog) form The Quran - Link To Islam", "From Alexander to Marco Polo, from Text to Image: The Marvels of India", "Take the World by Prose: Modes of Possession in the, "Text, Image and Contradiction in the Devisement du monde", "It's Impossible to Count the Things Wrong With the Negligent, Spurious, Distorted New Biography of George W. Bush", "The Gog and Magog Tradition in Revelation 20:8", "Typological Problems in Medieval Alexander Literature: The Enclosure of Gog and Magog", "A Christian Legend concerning Alexander", "Observations and Beliefs: The World of the Catalan Atlas", "Ch. 5th – 8th centuries (Fayard, 2005), "Franques Royal Annals" cited in Sawyer, Peter (2001). [23] "Why the prophet's gaze should have focused on these particular nations is unclear," comments Biblical scholar Daniel I. [aa][132], The author of the Travels of Sir John Mandeville, a 14th-century best-seller, said he had found these Jews in Central Asia where as Gog and Magog they had been imprisoned by Alexander, plotting to escape and join with the Jews of Europe to destroy Christians. A millennium later, a story existed, with learned support, that Alexander the Great built a … Badsey, S. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S (1999). [68][69][70][71] Ahmadiyya exegeses draw upon the etymological connection of the Arabic cognate Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj with the underlying themes of blazing fire, hastiness and boiling water to what is viewed as the superlative industrial use of fire and steam by these peoples and to their restless political character. Gog is a shortened version of Magog. They have also been depicted on Medieval cosmological maps, or mappae mundi, sometimes alongside Alexander's wall. [100][101][102] In the 13th-century French Roman d'Alexandre en prose, Alexander has an encounter with cannibals who have taken over the role of Gog and Magog. Ya'juj Ma'juj (Gog & MaGog) and Zul-Qarnain Thousands of years ago, the barbarous tribes of Yajuj and Ma'juj were imprisoned behind an iron wall built by Zul-Qarnain. [72][73] These powers cannot be defeated through military force and are to be overcome through prayer and divine intervention. [p][96] In the verse Roman d'Alexandre, Branch III, of Lambert le Tort (c. 1170), Gog and Magog ("Gos et Margos", "Got et Margot") were vassals to Porus, king of India, providing an auxiliary force of 400,000 men. Probably from a Khamseh of Nizami manuscript (c. 1590-1600). [67], Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (d.1908), the founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, identified Gog and Magog with the European powers that had emerged from the Slavic and Germanic peoples respectively, with particular reference to their political duplicity and shattering of world peace. [36], The anti-Roman Bar Kokhba revolt in the 2nd century AD looked to a human leader as the promised messiah, but after its failure Jews began to conceive of the messianic age in supernatural terms: first would come a forerunner, the Messiah ben Joseph, who would defeat Israel's enemies, identified as Gog and Magog, to prepare the way for the Messiah ben David;[g] then the dead would rise, divine judgement would be handed out, and the righteous would be rewarded. [e][21] Of Gog's allies, Meshech and Tubal were 7th-century BC kingdoms in central Anatolia north of Israel, Persia towards east, Cush (Ethiopia) and Put (Libya) to the south; Gomer is the Cimmerians, a nomadic people north of the Black Sea, and Beth Togarmah was on the border of Tubal. When they fire their arrows against God, he will kill them all in one night. "[141] Officials from the Bush Administration claim there is no record of this conversation and that making such references, "doesn't sound at all like Bush. God informs Gog and Magog in Ezekiel 38:15, "You will come from your place in the far North” (the Hebrew word means "the uttermost part of the North." Bismillahi Rahmani Raheem. Some scholars further attempt to relate the last portion of the interpretation of Yajuj and Majuj to the lake of Tiberias, currently known as the Sea of Galilee, the Earth's lowest freshwater lake, and the Dead Sea. The Bible only mentions Gog and Magog in two places: Ezekiel 38:1- 39:16 and Revelation 20:7-11. [107][u] The Byzantine writer Procopius said it was the Huns Alexander had locked out, and a Western monk named Fredegar seems to have Gog and Magog in mind in his description of savage hordes from beyond Alexander's gates who had assisted the Byzantine emperor Heraclius (610–641) against the Muslim Saracens. The Prophet (saws) described them as being well-built and having red hair, small eyes and wide, flat, shield-like faces. Dhu l-Qarnayn directs them to bring pieces of iron, which are melted in a fire to form a wall that can neither be scaled nor pierced, barring the way between two cliffs. Gog and Magog, or Yajuj and Majuj among the Arabs, are mentioned in the Koran and by most Arabic geographers as more or less mythical peoples. [94] They were allied to Belsyrians (Bebrykes,[95] of Bithynia in modern-day North Turkey), and sealed beyond the "Breasts of the North", a pair of mountains fifty days' march away towards the north. [k][86][87], Pseudo-Methodius (7th century[88]) is the first source in the Christian tradition for a new element: two mountains moving together to narrow the corridor, which was then sealed with a gate against Gog and Magog. Great Wall of Gorgan Map of the Great Wall of Gorgan ... Gog and Magog; References Further reading. ... and also with the Great Wall of Gorgan… In the hands of Early Christian writers they became apocalyptic hordes, and throughout the Medieval period variously identified as the Vikings, Huns, Khazars, Mongols, Turanians or other nomads, or even the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. [137][138], Some post-Cold War millenarians still identify Gog with Russia, but they now tend to stress its allies among Islamic nations, especially Iran. [19], "Son of man, direct your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince, leader of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy concerning him. [7] Alternatively, Gog may be derived from Magog rather than the other way round, and "Magog" may be code for Babylon. [145], Pair of individuals, peoples, or lands in the Bible and the Qur'an, For the Gog and Magog statues in London, see. Salam/Peace, I have been re-reading the topic of "Gog & Magog" which occurs in Sura 18:93-99 & 21:96 and have come to a different conclusion than previously held (my previous conclusion was that Gog & Magog are either two rivers of water or lava which were causing havoc to … [2] The process, and the shifting geography of Gog and Magog, can be traced through the literature of the period. [119][120], An explanation offered by Orientalist Henry Yule was that Marco Polo was only referring to the "Rampart of Gog and Magog", a name for the Great Wall of China. [133], In the early 19th century, some Hasidic rabbis identified the French invasion of Russia under Napoleon as "The War of Gog and Magog". [71][72] According to these teachings, the conflict between Russia and the United States as two superpowers, or the militant rivalry between the communist and capitalist systems and their impact over the nations of the world, is thus seen as having occurred in accordance with prophecies concerning Gog and Magog. Turns out, there's been a tradition of building walls to … [66], Historian and exegete Ibn Kathir mentioned similar theories in his book Al-Bidaya wa'l-Nihaya. It was built to keep the Scythians out of China. [o][94], Gog and Magog appear in somewhat later Old French versions of the romance. Have you heard of Darial Gorge/Darial Pass or the Great wall of Caspian (has multiple walls in Gorgan, Derbent etc) and it described what you said - a valley between two mountain. A condensed account occurs in a derivative work, the Middle English King Alisaunder (vv. The wicker giants Gog and Magog, leading the Lord Mayor's procession in the City of London, Competition watchdog to investigate electric vehicle charging 'range anxiety', 'Horrifying' rise in state executions in Egypt kills at least 57, Amnesty says. Yajuj and Majuj are conceived here as peoples rather than giants. [143] Reinterpretation did not generally continue after Classical times, but the needs of the modern world have produced a new body of apocalyptic literature in which Gog and Magog are identified as Communist Russia and China. [a][8][9][10], The form "Gog and Magog" may have emerged as shorthand for "Gog and/of the land of Magog", based on their usage in the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. [42], Two chapters Al Kahf and Al-Anbiya of the Quran discuss Gog and Magog. 5938–6287). A legend was attached to Gog and Magog by the time of the Roman period, that the Gates of Alexander were erected by Alexander the Great to repel the tribe. There is a legend, first mentioned by Josephus in the first century AD, that Alexander the Great built a great wall or a gate to keep out the nomadic tribes of Gog and Magog and if those tribes ever get through the wall it will be doomsday. [74] Islam is then seen as that which alone would succeed in bringing people of different nations together as per the Quran (18:99). [85] The legend claims that Alexander carved prophecies on the face of the Gate, marking a date for when these Huns, consisting of 24 nations, will breach the Gate and subjugate the greater part of the world. “Thou has caused horns to grown upon my head,” Alexander says to God, “so that I may crush the nations of the world.”. The Quran also describes the righteous ruler Dhul al-Qarnayn as … Also "barbarous nations", "savage tribes". [116][117][118] Marco Polo, traveling when the initial terror had subsided, places Gog and Magog among the Tartars in Tenduc, but then claims that the names Gog and Magog are translations of the place-names Ung and Mungul, inhabited by the Ung and Mongols respectively. But the City of London giants are carefully labelled Gog and Magog. [68], The 1st-century Jewish historian Josephus identified the Gog and Magog people as Scythians, horse-riding barbarians from around the Don and the Sea of Azov. [z][127] Confined Jews were later to be referred to as "Red Jews" (die roten Juden) in German-speaking areas; a term first used in a Holy Grail epic dating to the 1270s, in which Gog and Magog were two mountains enclosing these people. "The Timechart of Military History". [80][81] An earlier-dated Syriac Alexander Legend contains a somewhat different treatment of the Gog and Magog material, which passed into the lost Arabic version,[82] or the Ethiopic and later Oriental versions of the Alexander romance. This sends a chill down the French president’s spine. He agrees to build it for them, but warns that when the time comes (Last Age), Allah will remove the barrier. Bush is said to have continued, "This confrontation is willed by God, who wants to use this conflict to erase His people's enemies before a new age begins. [45], The early Muslim traditions were summarised by Zakariya al-Qazwini (d. 1283) in two popular works called the Cosmography and the Geography. [j][84] Written by a Christian based in Mesopotamia, the Legend is considered the first work to connect the Gates with the idea that Gog and Magog are destined to play a role in the apocalypse. [h][78] Several centuries later, this material was vastly elaborated in the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius and Alexander romance. The Ethiopic version derives from the lost Arabic version (, The first invasion, prophesied to occur 826 years after Alexander predicted, has been worked out to fall on 1 October 514; the second invasion on A.D. 629 (. Sticklers insist that they should be called Magog and Corineus, placing their confidence in the 12th-century account by Geoffrey of Monmouth of the fight between those two heroic figures. So while the Russian people of today are likely descended from Magog, there is no such biological connection for Gog to either Magog … [5] Dhul-Qarnayn, having journeyed to the ends of the world, meets "a people who scarcely understood a word" who seek his help in building a barrier that will separate them from the people of Yajuj and Majuj who "do great mischief on earth". The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north (typically associated with Gog and Magog ) from invading the land to the south. Lawson, M K (2004). He places Gog’s invasion at the end of the 1000-year reign of Messiah. Anyway, in the Koran, Dhu l-Qarnayn travels until he comes to “a people who could scarcely understand any speech”. Gog and Magog (/ˈɡɒɡ ... ˈmeɪɡɒɡ/; Hebrew: .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-family:"SBL Hebrew","SBL BibLit","Frank Ruehl CLM","Taamey Frank CLM","Ezra SIL","Ezra SIL SR","Keter Aram Tsova","Taamey Ashkenaz","Taamey David CLM","Keter YG","Shofar","David CLM","Hadasim CLM","Simple CLM","Nachlieli",Cardo,Alef,"Noto Serif Hebrew","Noto Sans Hebrew","David Libre",David,"Times New Roman",Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג‎; Gōg ū-Māgōg; Arabic: يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ; Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj) appear in the Hebrew Bible and Quran as individuals, tribes, or lands. Gog and Magog are normal human tribes descendant from Noah’s son Japheth (as) through his son Majuj (Magog) from whom arose Turkic-Slavonic-Mongol races. [30] The passage has a highly uncertain text, with manuscripts varying in their groupings of the letters of the Greek text into words, leading to different readings; one group of manuscripts ("group Y") links them with the "Marsians and Dacians", in eastern Europe, amongst others. [106] After the Empire became Christian, Ambrose (d. 397) identified Gog with the Goths, Jerome (d. 420) with the Scythians, and Jordanes (died c. 555) said that Goths, Scythians and Amazons were all the same; he also cited Alexander's gates in the Caucasus. Arab writers confirm that in the Arabic language, their name for the Great Wall of China is “the wall of Al Magog.” So the people of Magog today migrated via southern Russia to their current homeland , leaving behind such place-names as: Mogilev city, Mogiolistan, Mugojar Mountains, Mogol-Tau Mountains. According to Sahih Muslim, the Prophet said: [t][28], Early Christian writers (e.g. [f][26] Still, the Utopia of chapters 40–48 can be spoken of in the parlance of "true eschatological character, given that it is a product of "cosmic conflict" described in the immediately preceding Gog chapters.[27]. The Arabic name for the wall was “The Wall of Al Magog,” meant to keep out the invading armies of Magog. [110][111], While the confounding Gog and Magog as confined Jews was becoming commonplace, some, like Riccoldo or Vincent de Beauvais remained skeptics, and distinguished the Lost Tribes from Gog and Magog. Until the last days, according to the ninth-century Persian exegete al-Tabari, Yajuj and Majuj will try to dig under the wall each night, when the sound of their tools may be heard. An alternative theory links it to the Great Wall of Gorgan, also known as “Alexander’s Wall,” on the south-eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, 180 km of which is still preserved to this day. [114] In 1251, the French friar André de Longjumeau informed his king that the Mongols originated from a desert further east, and an apocalyptic Gog and Magog ("Got and Margoth") people dwelled further beyond, confined by the mountains. [136] During the Cold War the idea that Soviet Russia had the role of Gog gained popularity, since Ezekiel's words describing him as "prince of Meshek"—rosh meshek in Hebrew—sounded suspiciously like Russia and Moscow. In Ezekiel 38, Gog is an individual and Magog is his land;[1] in Genesis 10 Magog is a man, but no Gog is mentioned; and centuries later Jewish tradition changed Ezekiel's "Gog from Magog" into "Gog and Magog",[2] which is the form in which they appear in the Christian New Testament's Book of Revelation, although there they are peoples rather than individuals.[3]. [112], After the Khazars came the Mongols, seen as a mysterious and invincible horde from the east who destroyed Muslim empires and kingdoms in the early 13th century; kings and popes took them for the legendary Prester John, marching to save Christians from the Muslim Saracens, but when they entered Poland and Hungary and annihilated Christian armies a terrified Europe concluded that they were "Magogoli", the offspring of Gog and Magog, released from the prison Alexander had constructed for them and heralding Armageddon. The wall has been frequently identified with the Caspian Gates of Derbent, Russia, and with the Pass of Darial, on the border between Russia and Georgia. [52] Somewhat later the 14th-century traveller Ibn Battuta reported that the wall was sixty days' travel from the city of Zeitun, which is on the coast of China; the translator notes that Ibn Battuta has confused the Great Wall of China with that built by Dhul-Qarnayn. [11] An example of this combined form in Hebrew (Gog u-Magog) has been found, but its context is unclear, being preserved only in a fragment of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Consequently, this legend of Gog and Magog is not confined to the Bible. The last book of the Bible, Revelation, takes up the names when it says that at the end of the world, after Satan has been bound for 1,000 years, he will be loosed and will “deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog”. [144] One problem these writers have had to confront is the barrier holding Gog and Magog back, which is not to be found in the modern world: the answer varies, some writers saying that Gog and Magog were the Mongols and that the wall is now gone, others that both the wall and Gog and Magog are invisible. [b][12] In Revelation, Gog and Magog together are the hostile nations of the world. The name is explained in a narrative found in a sixth-century Syriac version and known as the Alexander Romance. He also addressed many minds (Westerners or otherwise[127]) being credulous of the notion that Mongols might be Captive Jews, but after weighing the pros and cons, he concluded this was an open question. And in some ancient Arabic documents, the Great Wall of China is called the Ramparts of Gog and Magog. [13][3] Gog or Goug the Reubenite[c] occurs in 1 Chronicles 5:4, but he appears to have no connection with the Gog of Ezekiel or Magog of Genesis. Verse 2 tells us that Gog is the LAND of Magog. "[142], In the Islamic apocalyptic tradition, the end of the world would be preceded by the release of Gog and Magog, whose destruction by God in a single night would usher in the Day of Resurrection. But God repairs the breaches they make before the morning. The Septuagint reads "Agag" instead of "Gog" in Numbers 24:7. What surprised me was to find Gog and Magog in the Koran. Peter Bietenholz argues that the story of Dhul-Qarnayn has its origins in legends of Alexander the Great current in the Middle East in the early years of the Christian era. Alexander the Great was an ancient Greek leader who conquered much of western Eurasia and northern Africa. As far as Islam is concerned, a reference to the iron wall against Yajuj and Majuj is made in a hadith that reports Mohammed hurrying into the room of Zainab bint Jahsh, his wife, and saying that so much (making a sign with his finger and thumb) had been opened up in the wall of Yajuj and Majuj. The exile, he tells his fellow captives, is God's punishment on Israel for turning away, but God will restore his people to Jerusalem when they return to him. Yes, ” Studies in Memory of Gaston Wiet, Jerusalem, 1977 of Gog and Magog Danish! 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great wall of gorgan gog magog

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